Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) is used in the treatment of the retroviral disease AIDS. HAART is composed of multiple anti-HIV drugs, that is prescribed to HIV-positive people, even before they develop symptoms of AIDS. The therapy usually includes one nucleoside analog (DNA chain terminator), one protease inhibitor and either a second nucleoside analog or a non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NNRTI).

Huntington's Disease
Huntington's Disease, Chorea Huntington More...

HECT domain
The Homologous to E6-AP Carboxy Terminus (HECT) domain is one of two catalytic modules found in the family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. It was first identified in the E6-AP ubiquitin ligase which contributes to proteasomal degradation of p53. Other HECT E3s are e.g. the essential yeast enzyme Rsp5 and its human ortholog Nedd4. The most notable substrate of Nedd4 is ENaC, the sodium-channel mutated in Liddle syndrome (Pickart, 2001, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 70: 503-33).

The Head Involution Defective gene, Hid, encodes a 410-residue Drosophila protein involved in apoptosis and is located in the Reaper region. Hid mutants do not exhibit gross cell-death defects but manifest partial failures in apoptosis. Cell death induced by Hid is preceeded by caspase activation and can be inhibited by caspase inhibitors. Hid function is negatively coupled to Ras activation (reviewed by Abrams JM, Trends Cell Biol., 1999, 9: 435-440).

Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a serine-threonine kinase acting as a co-repressor of homeodomain transcription factors (Kim et al., 1998, JBC, 273: 25875-79). It recently has been described to associate with p53 and CBP and is recruited together with its interactors into PML-NBs, where HIPK2 contributes to p53 activation in response to UV radiation by phosphorylating p53 at Ser46 thus facilitating the CBP-mediated acetylation of p53 at Lys382 (Hofmann et al., 2002, Nat cell Biol., 4:1-10).

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Hodgkin's Disease
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two basic types of lymphoma, a cancer that develops in the lymphatic system. Hodgkin's disease is relatively rare in accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer cases in the USA. People with compromised immune system are more likely to develop Hodgkin's disease. A major factor that distinguishes Hodgkin's disease from other lymphomas is the presence of the REED-STERNBERG CELL in the biopsy. The Reed-Sternberg cell (a giant cell with several nuclei) is almost always found in Hodgkin's disease. The two main treatments used for adult Hodgkin's disease are RADIATION THERAPY and CHEMOTHERAPY. Hodgkin's disease was one of the first cancers found that could be cured with either radiation therapy or chemotherapy. A newer treatment, which is becoming more widespread, is BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.

Heat-shock protein 70 belongs to the Hsp family of highly conserved proteins, which are induced in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in response to a variety of physiological and environmental stresses. It has been shown that Hsp70 negatively modulates the progression of apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli (Samali and Orrenius, Cell Stress Chap., 1998, 3: 228-36). The anti-apoptotic effect of Hsp70 has been reported to be mediated by interference with the formation of the apoptosome, the assembly of Apaf-1, cytochrome c and caspase-9 in an ATP-dependent manner. Hsp70 binds to the CARD domain of Apaf-1 and thus competes with Caspase-9 in binding to Apaf-1 (Beere et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 2000, 2: 469-75, Saleh et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 2000, 2: 476-82).

Human T cell Leukemia Virus 1

Huntington's Disease
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease and might involve apoptotic processes. More...

HOME of Apoptopedia